Brain is the most important organ of our body. It controls all body function. It is a vital organ and enclosed in a protective bony case called as skull. There is also protective layer within the bony skull and outside the brain called Durra matter and meninges. There is also a fluid present called cerebrospinal fluid which is arise from choroidal plexus of third ventricles, it lubricate the brain. Brain is a very sensitive organ but it is protected against environmental insult by skull and hairs.
Trauma in Brain Injury
Brain trauma is most important cause of brain injury and mostly seen in developed countries. It is usually due to road traffic accidents, which is a major cause of death in developed countries. InUKabout 10 lack people will come in emergency due to brain injury and out of every four, one person should be admitted in hospital. Other causes of trauma are due to blunt injury, gun shot wound and in children injury during playing.
Symptoms in Brain Injury
In mild cases there are only headache and injured area and some bleeding from that area If there is much bleeding from the injured area it means that the brain and its tissues may be also damaged so it is an emergency situation because if it don’t cured than it may lead to serious condition.
After brain injury the symptoms appear slowly and these are;
Headache, Nausea, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, blurring of speech, convulsion, depression, coma, signs of raised intracranial pressure like nausea, vomiting and also papilloedema, leakage of cerebrospinal fluid may lead to CSF rhinorrhea, other symptoms are leakage of blood from nose and ear, loss of smell sensation, Increased thirst.If any of these symptoms are present it means the brain is damaged.
Symptoms of long duration Brian Injury
some time minor injury can damage the brain tissue and at particular area symptoms appear late and depend on the area injured like;
Headache: when tissues became damage it can cause disturbance of flow of cerebrospinal fluid and accumulation of it in any part this condition is called hydrocephalus it cause pressure effect on adjacent area of brain and cause headache.
Depression: Due to brain injury the person became depressed and have aggressive attitude, they also want to do suicide.
Memory: There may be gradual loss of memory occur due to brain injury.
Decision Making: Due to brain injury the persons mental level get disturbed so there is loss of power of decision making.
Difficulty in walking: Due to damage to brain motor cortex, the area which control motor activities may be damage that lead to paralysis of limbs or whole body(paraplegia)
Hormonal changes: there may be changes of hormones due to brain injury because the pituitary gland may be damaged due to brain injury. It may also due to inadequate supply of blood to the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland is master control of other glands means it control the secretion of other hormones. due to lack of its functioning the condition called hypopitutarism, so it lead to inadequate secretion of other hormones of the body and lead to hypothyroidsm, gonadal dysfunction in both male and females, dwarfism and acromegaly etc.
Fracture of skull: brain injury may also cause fracturing of skull which is diagnosed by X-ray.
In severe brain injury patient should immediately referred to hospital. In hospital treatment should be immediate and include surgery. Surgery is done to remove the blood clot, remove pressure from brain, healing of injured tissue and for prevention of blood leakage.
After Surgery Prevention:
Monitor the patient either in home or in hospital. Pain killers and antibiotics should be given. Physiotherapy and speech therapy should be done and hormone replacement therapy should also be conducted.
Encourage the patient and remind him that he will perfectly became alright, give emotional support too.
Prevention from Injury during Driving:
Drive slowly especially when driving motor cycles to prevent accidents and follow the law. Do not fight with each other, be peaceful.