What is Cancer
What is Cancer (Neoplasm)? a most important question, Cancer (Neoplasm) is the word derived from Latin word from CRAB that is, they adhere to any part that they seize in an obstinate manner, similar to the Crab behavior. It is also called as “Neoplasm”. Cancer (Neoplasm) is the second leading cause of death in United States.
What is Cancer (Neoplasm):
Cancer (Neoplasm) literally means “new growth”. A Neoplasia is defined by Willis, is “An abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which is exceed and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissue and persist in the same excessive manner after the cessation of the stimuli, which evoked the change”. Cancer (Neoplasm) is also referred as Tumor.
Fundamental to the origin of all the Cancer (Neoplasm) are genetic changes that allow excessive and unregulated proliferation that is independent of physiologic growth regulatory stimuli. Cancer (Neoplasm) cells are said to be transformed because they continue to replicate, apparently obvious to the regulatory influence that control normal cell growth. Cancer (Neoplasm) therefore have an autonomy but incomplete because some of them require endocrine support and some depend on their host for their nutrition and blood supply.
What is Oncology (What is Cancer (Neoplasm) oncology):
The study of Cancer (Neoplasm) is called as Oncology, it is scientific study of Cancer (Neoplasm) and it prevention & treatment. Oncology (word comes from oncos; tumor, logos; study of). Oncology is further divided further types:
- Radiation Oncology
- Medical Oncology
- Surgical Oncology
- Pediatric Oncology
Categorization of Cancer (For What is Cancer (Neoplasm)):
On basis of clinical behavior Cancer is characterized into:
- Beningn Neoplasm
- Malignant Neoplasm
Beningn Neoplasm (cancer):
A Neoplasm is called as beningn when its microscopic and gross characteristics are considered as innocent means it will remain localized, it cannot spread to other side and it is capsulated except Leiomyoma and Hemangioma.
Beningn tumor has characteristic that it is amenable to local surgical removal, the patient generally survives. Beningn tumor can produce more than localized lump and some time clinically serious diseases.
In general, beningn tumor is designed by attaching suffix “oma” to the cell type from which the tumor arise.
For example Beningn tumor of cartilages is called as Chondroma.
Malignant neoplasm implies that lesion that can invade and destroy the adjacent tissues and spread to the distant sites(Metastasize) and cause death, Malignant tumor are also called as CANCER as previously discussed.
Malignant neoplasm arising from mescenchymal tissue is called as SARCOMA, while malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin is called as CARCINOMA.
Components of Neoplasm:
All the cancer whether beningn or malignant, have two basic components:
Parenchyma is made up of transformed or neoplastic cells. The parenchyma of neoplasm largely determined its biologic behavior and its component from which it arise.
It is the supporting, non Neoplastic tissue made up of connective tissues, blood vessels, and host derived inflammatory cells. The stroma is crucial for the growth of the neoplasm, since it carries blood supply and provides support for the growth of parenchymal cells.
Treatment of Cancer
There three types of treatment available for the Cancer (Neoplasm), these treatments are through:
- Radiation Therapy